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Linear Actuators: What They're And The Way To Choose Them

Linear Actuators: What They're And The Way To Choose Them

A linear actuator is a self-supporting structural system capable of transforming a circular motion generated by a motor right into a linear motion along an axis. Serving to to produce movements such because the pushing, pulling, raising, decreasing or inclination of a load.

The commonest use of actuators entails combining them with multi-axis Cartesian robot systems or utilizing them as integral parts of machines.

The primary sectors:
industrial automation
servos and pick-and-place systems in production processes
assembly
packaging and palletisation
Certainly, just think of applications resembling plane, laser or plasma cutting machines, the loading and unloading of machined pieces, feeding machining centres in a production line, or moving an industrial anthropomorphic robot alongside an additional exterior axis with a view to expand its range of action.

All of those applications use one or more linear actuators. In accordance with the type of application and the performance that it should assure in terms of precision, load capacity and pace, there are numerous types of actuators to select from, and it is typically the type of motion transmission that makes the difference.

There are three most important types of motion transmission:

belt
rack and pinion
screw
How can you make sure that you select the appropriate actuator? What variables does an industrial designer tackling a new application need to take into consideration?

As is often the case when talking about linear motion solutions, the important thing is to consider the difficulty from the right viewpoint – namely the application and, above all, the outcomes and efficiency you might be expecting. As such, it is worth starting by considering the dynamics, stroke size and precision required.

Let’s look at these in detail.

High Dynamics
In lots of areas of business design, comparable to packaging, for example, the calls for made of the designer fairly often should do with speed and reducing cycle times.

It's no shock, then, that high dynamics are commonly the starting point when defining a solution.

Belt drives are often the best solution when it comes to high dynamics, considering that:

they allow for accelerations of as much as 50 m/s2 and speeds of up to 5 m/s on strokes of as long as 10-12m
an X-Y-Z portal with belt-driven axes is typically capable of handling loads starting from extraordinarily small to approximately 200kg
based on the type of lubrication, these systems can offer notably long upkeep intervals, thus ensuring continuity of production.
Wherever high dynamics are required on strokes longer than 10-12m, actuators with rack and pinion drives are typically a wonderful solution, as they allow for accelerations of up to 10 m/s2 and speeds of as much as 3.5 m/s on doubtlessly infinite strokes.

The choice of a distinct type of actuator would not guarantee the identical outcomes: a screw system, which is undoubtedly a lot more exact, will surely be too gradual and wouldn't be able to handle such long strokes.

Long Strokes
Systems created by assembling actuators in the typical X-Y-Z configurations of Cartesian robotics usually, in applications similar to pick-and-place and feeding machining centres alongside production lines, have very lengthy strokes, which can even attain dozens of metres in length.

Plus, in lots of cases, these long strokes – which usually contain the Y axis – are tasked with handling considerably heavy loads, typically hundreds of kilos, as well as quite a few vertical Z axes which operate independently.

In these types of applications, your best option for the Y axis is unquestionably an actuator with a rack and pinion drive, considering that:

thanks to the rigidity of the rack and pinion system, they are capable of working along potentially unlimited strokes, all whilst sustaining their inflexibleity, precision and efficiency
actuators with induction-hardened steel racks with inclined enamel which slide along recirculating ball bearing rails or prismatic rails with bearings are capable of dealing with loads of over 1000kg
the option of installing a number of carriages, each with its own motor, allows for numerous impartial vertical Z axes.
A belt system is ideal for strokes of up to 10-12m, whilst ball screw actuators are limited – within the case of lengthy strokes – by their critical speed.

Positioning Repeatability
If, alternatively, the designer is seeking most precision – like in applications such as the assembly of microcomponents or certain types of handling in the medical subject, for example – then there is only one clear choice: linear axes with ball screw drives.

Screw-pushed linear actuators supply the best efficiency from this perspective, with a degree of positioning repeatability as high as ±5 μ. This performance can't be matched by either belt-pushed or screw-driven actuators, which each reach a most degree of positioning repeatability of ±0.05 mm.
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